Touriga Franca/Touriga Nacional/Tinta Roriz/old field-blended red varieties. From exclusively Class A parcels (Serra Douro, Lapa, Castelos) totaling 11.5 hectares on poor schist soils. The fruit is hand-harvested, partly destemmed and fermented in lagar and tank; fermentation is stopped with 77-degree grape brandy. The wine is aged in a variety of tonel and balseiro, which are tall wooden tanks from 3,000-60,000 liters with thick staves that slow down oxidation. It finishes at a modest 19.5% alcohol and 70 g/liter RS, in other words considerably drier than most rubies. The average age in bottle is 2-3 years. 20,000-30,000 numbered bottles produced annually.